Updates on Robotic Bladder Cancer Treatment by MPUH - CRS
The bladder is the body part that holds and releases urine. It is in the middle of the lower belly area. The bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine; it is located in the pelvis. Bladder cancer characteristically causes blood in the urine; this may be visible to the naked eye or detectable only by microscope.
- (1888PressRelease) October 23, 2012 - What is bladder Cancer?
Our kidney filters the blood by separating the blood and wastes. The waste is passed through the ureters and stored in bladder in form of urine. Bladder is a balloon shaped organ in pelvic area. Generally, cancerous cells start developing inside the bladder and cause the cancer. Though bladder cancer can occur at any age, it typically affect at the elder age. It is one of the most treatable cancers in the early stage. Many times, after curing, the cells start developing again. That is why; the cancer survivor has to go for regular checkup to look for bladder cancer re-occurrence.
• Blood in the urine which makes urine slightly rusty and deep red.
• Pain during urination
• Feeling to urinate frequently, with or without the result.
• Low back pain
Cancer develops slowly in the body; it is nature of the cancer that it forms a mass of tissues - which is called tumor. These tumors further grow and invade in nearby organs. There are chances that cells break from the tumor and get mixed with blood stream. Thus, they circulate in the body and cancer is formed in other organs as well. To identify the severity of the cancer, it is divided into four stages. The TNM system is used to know about the staging, it is proposed by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC).
• The letter T is followed by numbers 0-4 and/ or letters to describe how far the main Tumor has grown through the bladder wall and whether it has grown into nearby tissues. The lower T numbers mean lesser extensive growth.
• The letter N is followed by a number from 0 to 3 to indicate any cancer spread to lymph Nodes near the bladder.
• The Metastases or the letter M is followed by 0 or 1 to indicate the cancer spreading to the distant sites, which are not near the bladder.
T Categories of Bladder Cancer:
• Tx: Primary tumor cannot be evaluated, due to lack of information
• T0: No evidence available for the primary tumor
• Ta: Noninvasive papillary carcinoma
• Tis: Flat tumor (noninvasive)
• T1 Tumor exists from the layer of cells lining the bladder into the connective tissue below.
• T2 Tumor has grown in to the muscle of the bladder
o T2a: Tumor has grown in inner half of muscle layer
o T2b: Tumor has grown in outer half of muscle layer
• T3 Tumor spread around the fatty tissue of bladder
o T3a: Such tumor can be seen by microscope
o T3b: Tumor can be felt by a surgeon or can be seen by imagining test.
• T4 Tumor has spread in any of the following: prostate, uterus, vagina, pelvic wall, or abdominal wall
N Categories of Bladder Cancer:
• NX: Similar to TX, regional lymph node cannot be accessed due to lack of information.
• N0: No regional lymph node is spread.
• N1: The cancer has spread to a single lymph node, size is less than 2 cm
• N2: The cancer has spread to 2 or more lymph nodes size is between 2 to 5 cm.
• N3: The cancer has spread to lymph nodes size is more than 5 cm.
M Categories of Bladder Cancer:
• MX: Distant metastasis (spread) cannot be evaluated, this stage is similar to TX and NX
• M0: There are no signs of distance spread.
• M1: Cancer has spread in to different parts of the body like lungs, bones, liver, distant lymph node etc.
Depending upon the T, N and M Categories, the stages of the bladder cancer are defined as follows:
Stage 0: In this stage, abnormal cells are found in tissue that lines the inside of the bladder but it has not grown into the connective tissues or muscle of the bladder wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. In stage 0, tumors look like a tiny mushrooms going from the lining of the bladder.
Stage I: Cancer has formed and spread to the layer of tissue under the inner lining of the bladder, but has not reached the layer of muscle in the bladder wall.
Stage II: Cancer has spread to either the inner half or outer half of the muscle wall of the bladder. But it has not passed completely through the muscle to reach the layer of fatty tissue - which surrounds the bladder.
Stage III: Cancer has spread from the bladder to the fatty layer of tissue surrounding it, and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, uterus, and vagina). It is not growing into the pelvic or abdominal walls.
Stage IV: Cancer has spread from the bladder to the wall of the abdomen or pelvis. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes or to other parts of the body; it might have spread to the distant sites like bones, liver or lungs.
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